Knee

Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the knee joint. It is one of the most common knee conditions for the elderly, often explained as a “wear and tear” problem, and can severely impact their quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis occurs when there is a loss of articular cartilage within the knee, causing the joint space within the knee to narrow and eventually lead to bone-on-bone grinding during movement. As the condition progresses, bony spurs will develop and patients are often able to feel these painful bony lumps around the knee joint. 

It’s important to note that not everyone who experiences osteoarthritis in their knees has experienced a traumatic injury or overuse of the joint. Some people simply have a genetic predisposition to developing knee osteoarthritis as they age.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome Symptoms

Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a condition that causes pain at the lateral (outside) knee joint and is exacerbated by activity. It is an overuse condition resulting from repeated extension and flexion of the knees and therefore commonly affects runners and cyclists. It also tends to occur in individuals with a sudden increase in activity level. 

The iliotibial band (ITB) is a thick fascia band that runs from the outside hip to the outside knee and helps to provide rotational stability to the hip and knee. The cause of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is often multifactorial and if left untreated, it can affect your ability to walk, run or climb stairs.

Jumper’s Knee

Patellar Tendonitis, also known as “Jumper’s Knee” or “Patellar Tendinopathy”, is a condition that causes anterior knee pain due to the inflammation of the patellar tendon. The patellar tendon connects the kneecap to the shin bone and it tightens when you extend (straighten) your knee. This condition can be classified into 2 stages – acute or chronic.

Acute patellar tendonitis usually presents with swelling, and redness (signs of inflammation) and indicates an early injury to the tendon. If left untreated and undiagnosed, it can lead to chronic patellar tendinopathy, where the patellar tendon is thickened and degenerated and will take longer to recover.

Meniscus Tear

Meniscus tear or injury is a common cause of knee pain in the medial (inside) and lateral (outside) sides of a knee joint. The knee meniscus is fibrocartilage that helps to “cushion” the shock between the thigh and shin bone when weight-bearing and prevents damage to the joint cartilage. 

A meniscus tear can increase the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis if left untreated. It also changes the biomechanics and stability of the knee joint, resulting in an increased risk of developing other knee conditions.

Runner’s Knee

Runner’s knee, medically termed Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome or Chondromalacia Patella, is a common condition that causes knee pain around or deep to the kneecap. It is an overuse injury due to repetitive stress that occurs in the joint between the kneecap and the thigh bone. This condition can occur at any age but frequently affects the younger population, especially females or active individuals who run, jump or perform squats frequently. If left untreated, this condition can potentially result in knee osteoarthritis.